ICT

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) : Significance, Function, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord with a density ranging from 1.003 to 1.008 which allows the brain to “float” in the fluid. It supplies nutrients to the tissues of the Central nervous system and helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. Compared to plasma, CSF has a lower concentration of glucose, protein, and potassium while having a higher concentration of chloride. The volume of the CSF in adults is 100–150 ml. The volume is less in children and varies according to the body length. About two-third part of CSF is secreted by the Choroid plexus of the four ventricle. The remaining part of CSF are secreted by the Ependymal surfaces of the ventricles and the Arachnoid mater. A small amount of CSF also comes from the blood flow in the brain. CSF is produce by an Read More

ICT

Diabetes mellitus : Sign & Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Complication, Treatment, Control & Prevention

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome characterized as Polyuria, Polydipsia & polyphagia caused by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Deficiency of insulin affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat, and can cause a significant disturbance of water and electrolyte homeostasis. Glucose is vital to human health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It’s also human brain’s main source of fuel. If the person have diabetes mellitus, no matter what type, it means person have too much glucose in the blood circulation, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes mellitus includes Type-I diabetes mellitus and Type-II diabetes mellitus. Potentially reversible diabetes mellitus include prediabetes ; when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes; and gestational diabetes, which Read More

ICT

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) : Sign & Symptoms, Transmission, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic viral infection, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). By damaging our immune system, HIV interferes with our body’s ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global pandemic. As of 2014, approximately 37 million people have HIV worldwide with the number of new infections that year being about 2 million. This is down from 3.1 million new infections in 2001. Of these 37 million more than half are women and 2.6 million are less than 15 years old.  It resulted in about 1.2 million deaths in 2014, down from a peak of 2.2 million in 2005. HIV is a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STD). It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens our immune Read More

ICT

Hepatitis B : Sign & Symptoms, Transmission, Risk factors, Diagnosis, Complication, Treatment and Prevention

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis of liver (permanent scarring of the liver). Most people infected with hepatitis B as adults recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic hepatitis B infection. A vaccine can prevent hepatitis B infection but there’s no cure if you have it. If you’re infected, taking certain precautions can help prevent spreading HBV to others. In 2016, the World Health Assembly passed the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis, which included specific targets for eliminating Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus by 2030. Therefore, to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence, prophylaxis, diagnosed Read More

ICT

Scrub typhus : Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis & Examination, Treatment & Complication and Prevention

Scrub typhus is a disease caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi (rickettsial bacteria); it’s also known as tsutsugamushi disease  or bush typhus . The most common symptoms of scrub typhus include fever, headache, body aches, and sometimes rash and untreated typhus can lead to serious complications and it’s potentially fatal. Scrub typhus is spread to people through bites of infected chiggers (mites), Fleas, lice or ticks transmit. When Fleas, mites, lice, and ticks carrying rickettsial bacteria and bite someone the bacteria transmit into the patient blood stream. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria continue to reproduce and grow that causes typhus. There are three different types of typhus: Epidemic (louse-borne) typhus, Endemic (murine) typhus and Scrub typhus. These are caused by three different types of typhus, and each type is caused by a different type of bacterium and transmitted by a different type of arthropod. Typhus is not transmitted Read More