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Gout – Uric acid Analysis

Uric acid is a non-protein nitrogenous waste product of the body, derived from purines of the diet. Purines are the end products of nucleoprotein digestion ( high in red meat). The two purines found in RNA and DNA are adenine and guanine. The first step in the catabolism of purines is their hydrolytic deamination to form xanthine and hypoxanthine. These are then oxidized to uric acid. Uric acid is eliminated by the body through the kidney. Uric acid is filtered in the glomeruli and partially reabsorbed by the tubules and it is excreted in urine. In Kidney disorders, as with other non-protein nitrogen fractions of the plasma, uric acid builds up in the body.             Estimation of serum uric acid levels is helpful in the diagnosis of several pathologic conditions. An increase of serum uric acid is seen in case of Gout and increased metabolism of nucleoproteins of the body Read More

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Normal Value of Biochemical Parameters and Cancer Markers

Lipid Profile Test : Total Lipid : 400 – 1000 mg/dl Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Serum Phospholipids : Cardiac Profile Test : Cardiac Risk Evaluation Tests Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol : Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : < 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Cardiac Injury Panel Test Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)            : Male : < 170 U/L Female : <145 U/L CPK-MB : 0 – 24 U/L SGOT : Upto 40 IU/L Lactate Dehydrogenase Read More

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Normal Value of Hematological Parameters……

Hemoglobin Male                              :  13-18 gm/dl Female                               :  12-16.5 gm/dl Children (up to 1 year)   : 11-13 gm/dl Children (10-12 years)    : 11.5-14.5 gm/dl Infants (New born)         : 13.5-19.5 gm/dl Total RBC count Male      : 4.5-6.0 million/cu.mm Female  : 4.0-5.0 million/cu.mm Total WBC count Adults             : 4,000-11,000/cu.mm At birth           : 10,000-25,000/cu.mm 1 to 3 years      : 6,000-18,000/cu.mm 4 to 7 years      : 6,000-15,000/cu.mm 8 to 12 year     : 4,500-13,500/cu.mm Total platelet count 1.5-4.0 lakes/cu.mm Total Reticulocyte count Adults : 0.2-2.0 % Infants : 2.0-6.0 % Absolute Eosinophil count 40-440/cu.mm Differential Leukocyte count Neutrophils                 : 40-75 %  ( mean  :  57 % ) Band forms       : 2-6 % ( mean  :  3 % ) Segmented        : 50-70 % ( mean  :  54 % ) Eosinophils                  : 1-4 % ( mean : 2 % ) Basophils                     : 0-1 % Lymphocytes             : 20-45 % (mean :  Read More

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Estimation of Bilirubin – Jaundice : Significance, Production, Transportation, Metabolism & Laboratory Analysis

Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system; the end -products of heme catabolism are bilepigments. After breakdown of haemoglobin, the globin chains are separted,  they are hydrolysed and the amino acid are channelled into the body amino acid pool. The iron liberated from heme is re-utilised. The Fe++ liberated is oxidised Fe++ and taken up by transferrin. The porphyrin ring is broken down in reticuloendothelial cells of liver, spleen and bone marrow to bile pigments; linear tetrapyrrole is biliverdin which is green in colour which is further reduced to bilirubin, a red-yellow pigment, by an NADPH dependent biliverdin reductase. About 6 gm of Hb is broken down per day and a total of 300 mg of bilirubin is formed every day from which about 250 mg of bilirubin is formed and 50 mg of bilirubin is formed from myoglobin and other heme containing proteins. About Read More

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Triglycerides (TG) – Significance, Characteristics, Function & Laboratory Analysis

            Triglycerides (TG) or Triacyl glycerols are true natural fats, esters of trihydric alcohol, glycerol and fatty acids, that belong to the organic group of compounds called lipids. Most animal and vegetable fats are triglycerides. After hydrolysis they yield glycerol and fatty acids and the triglyceride assay is based on the quentitative analysis of glycerol forms  of the tiglyceride. The triacylglycerols are the storage form of lipids in the adipose tissue. when stored as trihydric alcohol, water molecules are repelled and space requirement is minimal. Excess fat in the body leads to obesity. Triglycerides combine with protein in your blood to form substances called high-density and low-density lipoproteins. The lipoproteins contain cholesterol, which is one of the fats in blood that is related to heart disease. As per international Union of Biochemistry the correct designations are monoacyl glycerol, diacyl glycerol and triacyl glycerol. But the old terminology of monoglyceride, diglyceride and Read More