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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) : Significance, Function, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord with a density ranging from 1.003 to 1.008 which allows the brain to “float” in the fluid. It supplies nutrients to the tissues of the Central nervous system and helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. Compared to plasma, CSF has a lower concentration of glucose, protein, and potassium while having a higher concentration of chloride. The volume of the CSF in adults is 100–150 ml. The volume is less in children and varies according to the body length. About two-third part of CSF is secreted by the Choroid plexus of the four ventricle. The remaining part of CSF are secreted by the Ependymal surfaces of the ventricles and the Arachnoid mater. A small amount of CSF also comes from the blood flow in the brain. CSF is produce by an Read More

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Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) : Significance, Morphology, Reference Range, Interpretation & Procedure

The leukocytes are also called white blood corpuscles (WBC) and formally known as white cells of the blood but these are not white colour, these are colourless. The white blood cells are protect our body against any diseases by fighting with infections (bacterial, viral, protozoan, parasitic etc.), antigens and also against malignancy. These are two types; Granulocytes (Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophile) and Agranulocytes (Monocyte and Lymphocyte). After staining the blood film with Leishman stain, the blood smear examine in the microscope under oil immersion objective (100X). Under oil immersion objective the leukocytes are seen as follows: Morphology,  Function & Significance of Leukocytes  Differential Leukocyte Count is useful to identify changes in the distribution of white blood cells which may be related to specific type of disorders. It also gives idea regarding the severity of the disease and the degree of response of the body. Neutrophil Neutrophils are round shape, 10 – 15µ Read More