MedicoInfo-04

Rhesus Blood Group System & It’s Variant

In 1940 Landsteiner and Wiener reported that when the red cells of Macacus Rhesus monkeys were introduce into rabbits and guinea pigs, antibodies were evoked. These caused clumping not only of monkey’s red blood cells but also of the red blood cells of about 85% of human beings. The antigenic factor present on the surface of the human red blood cells called ‘Rh’ antigen. ‘Rh’ Blood group system is the second most important blood group system in human. ‘Rh’ Positive blood cells are antigenic for ‘Rh’ Negative individuals. Introduction of ‘Rh’ Positive cells (antigen) into an ‘Rh’ negative individual will stimulate the production of antibodies (anti-D) which will agglutinate and haemolysed ‘Rh’ Positive cells in 60 -70 cases. ‘Rh’ antibodies are not occurring naturally but develop only after exposure of an individual to antigen which the individuals lacks and the resultant antibody (IgG in nature), is called an immune antibody. Read More

MedicoInfo-04

Human Blood Group System

The basis of human blood group system is the antigenic character of the Red cells. Red blood cell of the human being contains lipoprotein or glycoprotein on their surface which constitute the blood group antigens. About 300 blood group system so far discovered and some of the more common are____ Natural           : ABO (A, B) MNS (M, N, S,s) P (P­1, P, PK,P) Lewis (Lea, Leb) Luthern (Lua, Lub) Ii (I, i) etc. Immune          : Rhesus (C, c, D, d, E,e) Kidd (JKa, JKb) Duffy (Fya, Fyb) Kell (K, k, Kpa, kpb, Jsa, Jsb) etc. Of these only two blood group system ; ‘ABO’ and ‘Rhesus’ are of major clinical importance and constitute major antigens. Which causes serious complication in blood transfusion, hence they may be tested whenever blood is administrated. The other blood group systems are of less importance because the red cell antigens are weak and naturally occurring Read More