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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) : Significance, Function, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord with a density ranging from 1.003 to 1.008 which allows the brain to “float” in the fluid. It supplies nutrients to the tissues of the Central nervous system and helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. Compared to plasma, CSF has a lower concentration of glucose, protein, and potassium while having a higher concentration of chloride. The volume of the CSF in adults is 100–150 ml. The volume is less in children and varies according to the body length. About two-third part of CSF is secreted by the Choroid plexus of the four ventricle. The remaining part of CSF are secreted by the Ependymal surfaces of the ventricles and the Arachnoid mater. A small amount of CSF also comes from the blood flow in the brain. CSF is produce by an Read More

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Synovial Fluid Collection & Analysis : Significance, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Synovial fluid is the dialysate of plasma with addition of macromolecules; derived from synovium and cartilage. Synovial fluid is found around the joints such as knee, ankle, hip, elbow, wrist and shoulder. The chemical composition of synovial fluid resembles with that of other body fluids such as serous fluids and spinal fluid. In addition, it contains a mucopolysaccharide, hyluronic acid (derived from B cells of synovial membrane), which acts as a binding and protective agent for the connective tissues and also maintaining the high viscosity of the synovial fluid. The laboratory examination of this fluid helps to assist in the diagnosis of joint arthritis, gout or infection of the joint (septic arthritis). The synovial fluid cytology is particularly useful noninvasive means of investigating the causes of mono-arthropathies and do distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory joints diseases. The synovial fluid is obtained by aspiration of a joint. About 1 ml is Read More