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Gout – Uric acid Analysis

Uric acid is a non-protein nitrogenous waste product of the body, derived from purines of the diet. Purines are the end products of nucleoprotein digestion ( high in red meat). The two purines found in RNA and DNA are adenine and guanine. The first step in the catabolism of purines is their hydrolytic deamination to form xanthine and hypoxanthine. These are then oxidized to uric acid. Uric acid is eliminated by the body through the kidney. Uric acid is filtered in the glomeruli and partially reabsorbed by the tubules and it is excreted in urine. In Kidney disorders, as with other non-protein nitrogen fractions of the plasma, uric acid builds up in the body.             Estimation of serum uric acid levels is helpful in the diagnosis of several pathologic conditions. An increase of serum uric acid is seen in case of Gout and increased metabolism of nucleoproteins of the body Read More

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Normal Value of Biochemical Parameters and Cancer Markers

Lipid Profile Test : Total Lipid : 400 – 1000 mg/dl Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Serum Phospholipids : Cardiac Profile Test : Cardiac Risk Evaluation Tests Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol : Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : < 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Cardiac Injury Panel Test Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)            : Male : < 170 U/L Female : <145 U/L CPK-MB : 0 – 24 U/L SGOT : Upto 40 IU/L Lactate Dehydrogenase Read More

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Estimation of Bilirubin – Jaundice : Significance, Production, Transportation, Metabolism & Laboratory Analysis

Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system; the end -products of heme catabolism are bilepigments. After breakdown of haemoglobin, the globin chains are separted,  they are hydrolysed and the amino acid are channelled into the body amino acid pool. The iron liberated from heme is re-utilised. The Fe++ liberated is oxidised Fe++ and taken up by transferrin. The porphyrin ring is broken down in reticuloendothelial cells of liver, spleen and bone marrow to bile pigments; linear tetrapyrrole is biliverdin which is green in colour which is further reduced to bilirubin, a red-yellow pigment, by an NADPH dependent biliverdin reductase. About 6 gm of Hb is broken down per day and a total of 300 mg of bilirubin is formed every day from which about 250 mg of bilirubin is formed and 50 mg of bilirubin is formed from myoglobin and other heme containing proteins. About Read More

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Triglycerides (TG) – Significance, Characteristics, Function & Laboratory Analysis

            Triglycerides (TG) or Triacyl glycerols are true natural fats, esters of trihydric alcohol, glycerol and fatty acids, that belong to the organic group of compounds called lipids. Most animal and vegetable fats are triglycerides. After hydrolysis they yield glycerol and fatty acids and the triglyceride assay is based on the quentitative analysis of glycerol forms  of the tiglyceride. The triacylglycerols are the storage form of lipids in the adipose tissue. when stored as trihydric alcohol, water molecules are repelled and space requirement is minimal. Excess fat in the body leads to obesity. Triglycerides combine with protein in your blood to form substances called high-density and low-density lipoproteins. The lipoproteins contain cholesterol, which is one of the fats in blood that is related to heart disease. As per international Union of Biochemistry the correct designations are monoacyl glycerol, diacyl glycerol and triacyl glycerol. But the old terminology of monoglyceride, diglyceride and Read More

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Diabetes mellitus : Sign & Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Complication, Treatment, Control & Prevention

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome characterized as Polyuria, Polydipsia & polyphagia caused by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Deficiency of insulin affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat, and can cause a significant disturbance of water and electrolyte homeostasis. Glucose is vital to human health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It’s also human brain’s main source of fuel. If the person have diabetes mellitus, no matter what type, it means person have too much glucose in the blood circulation, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes mellitus includes Type-I diabetes mellitus and Type-II diabetes mellitus. Potentially reversible diabetes mellitus include prediabetes ; when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes; and gestational diabetes, which Read More

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Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) : Significance, Indication & Contraindication, Patient preparation, Determination & Interpretation

Glucose Tolerance means ability of the body to utilize glucose in the blood circulation. This is a well standardized test and is highly useful for the diagnosis of Type-II Diabetes Mellitus in doubtful cases. This test is also called Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) as glucose is given orally. Alternatively, the test can also be done by injecting 25 gm of glucose intravenously and is then called Intravenous Glucose Tolerance test (IGTT). Indication of GTT Patient with symptoms suggest of diabetes mellitus but fasting glucose level is inconclusive. During pregnancy excessive weight gaining in noticed with the past history of big baby above 4.0 Kg or the past history of miscarriage. To rule-out benign renal glycosuria. Contra-indication of GTT It should not be done in a person with confirmed Diabetes mellitus patients that is Fasting blood glucose level more than 126 – 140 mg/dl and Postprandial glucose level more than Read More