ICT

Anti Human Globulin Test (Coomb’s Test)

Coomb’s test or Anti Human Globulin test is very useful in recognized weak immunologic reactions. It is widely used in the identification of Du, Compatibility testing, Antibody screening and identification of Sensitized red cells. Anti Human Globulin is made by injecting human globulin in rabbit and purifying the Anti human globulin (AHG) produced by the rabbit. It is commercially available. There are two types of Coomb’s test : Direct Coomb’s Test (DCT) or Direct Anti Human Globulin Test (DAT) Indirect Coomb’s Test (ICT) or Indirect Anti Human Globulin Test (IAT) Direct Coomb’s Test (DCT) or Direct Anti Human Globulin Test (DAT) Direct Coomb’s Test (DCT) or Direct Anti Human Globulin Test (DAT) is performed to detect anti-D antibody or other antibodies attached to the Red Blood Cell surface with in the blood stream. This occurs in the following circumstances : When there is a ‘Rh’ Positive baby in the womb Read More

ICT

Blood Group and Pregnancy

‘ABO’ Blood Grouping & Pregnancy :             If Group-A blood is given (in error) to a group-B, a foreign substance (A antigen) is introduced into the blood stream of an individual who already has natural antibody (anti-A), which will reacts with the antigen on the incoming blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This leads to serious problems such as blocking of blood vessels as the incoming blood cells are agglutinated. This is forward by haemolysis of these cells as complement links to the antigen-antibody reaction.             The large number of incoming antigenic cells started an immune reaction leading to the production of Immune Antibody. These antibodies are IgG in nature. Which readily pass through the placenta and may therefore leads to mother-foetus ‘ABO’ incompatibility problem. This is particularly serious if the mother is ‘O’ type and the foetus type ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘AB’.             Immunization also occurs due to Read More

ICT

Rhesus Blood Group System & It’s Variant

In 1940 Landsteiner and Wiener reported that when the red cells of Macacus Rhesus monkeys were introduce into rabbits and guinea pigs, antibodies were evoked. These caused clumping not only of monkey’s red blood cells but also of the red blood cells of about 85% of human beings. The antigenic factor present on the surface of the human red blood cells called ‘Rh’ antigen. ‘Rh’ Blood group system is the second most important blood group system in human. ‘Rh’ Positive blood cells are antigenic for ‘Rh’ Negative individuals. Introduction of ‘Rh’ Positive cells (antigen) into an ‘Rh’ negative individual will stimulate the production of antibodies (anti-D) which will agglutinate and haemolysed ‘Rh’ Positive cells in 60 -70 cases. ‘Rh’ antibodies are not occurring naturally but develop only after exposure of an individual to antigen which the individuals lacks and the resultant antibody (IgG in nature), is called an immune antibody. Read More

ICT

ABO Blood Group System & It’s Determination

The Human ‘ABO’ Blood Group System discovered by Landsteiner’s in 1901. The principle of Blood grouping is based on the Landsteiner’s Law. Landsteiner’s Law : “The corresponding antibody is never present in the serum of an individual when the antigen is manifest on his red cells”. (Same type of antigen and antibody cannot stay together in an individual). ‘ABO’ Blood group system is divided into four major groups and they are ‘A’ group, ‘B’ group, ‘AB’ group and ‘O’ group. This depends on the presence of ‘A’ antigen or/and ‘B’ antigen on the surface of the Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) and determined by agglutination reactions obtained by mixing their Red blood cells with two different reagents (corresponding antibodies), known as Anti-A and Anti-B. The percentage of different group in Indian and Caucasian (US) population as approximately as follows : ‘ABO’ Group is determined by two methods : Forward Grouping Reverse Read More

ICT

Gout – Uric acid Analysis

Uric acid is a non-protein nitrogenous waste product of the body, derived from purines of the diet. Purines are the end products of nucleoprotein digestion ( high in red meat). The two purines found in RNA and DNA are adenine and guanine. The first step in the catabolism of purines is their hydrolytic deamination to form xanthine and hypoxanthine. These are then oxidized to uric acid. Uric acid is eliminated by the body through the kidney. Uric acid is filtered in the glomeruli and partially reabsorbed by the tubules and it is excreted in urine. In Kidney disorders, as with other non-protein nitrogen fractions of the plasma, uric acid builds up in the body.             Estimation of serum uric acid levels is helpful in the diagnosis of several pathologic conditions. An increase of serum uric acid is seen in case of Gout and increased metabolism of nucleoproteins of the body Read More

ICT

Normal Value of Biochemical Parameters and Cancer Markers

Lipid Profile Test : Total Lipid : 400 – 1000 mg/dl Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Serum Phospholipids : Cardiac Profile Test : Cardiac Risk Evaluation Tests Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol : Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : < 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Cardiac Injury Panel Test Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)            : Male : < 170 U/L Female : <145 U/L CPK-MB : 0 – 24 U/L SGOT : Upto 40 IU/L Lactate Dehydrogenase Read More

ICT

Normal Value of Hematological Parameters……

Hemoglobin Male                              :  13-18 gm/dl Female                               :  12-16.5 gm/dl Children (up to 1 year)   : 11-13 gm/dl Children (10-12 years)    : 11.5-14.5 gm/dl Infants (New born)         : 13.5-19.5 gm/dl Total RBC count Male      : 4.5-6.0 million/cu.mm Female  : 4.0-5.0 million/cu.mm Total WBC count Adults             : 4,000-11,000/cu.mm At birth           : 10,000-25,000/cu.mm 1 to 3 years      : 6,000-18,000/cu.mm 4 to 7 years      : 6,000-15,000/cu.mm 8 to 12 year     : 4,500-13,500/cu.mm Total platelet count 1.5-4.0 lakes/cu.mm Total Reticulocyte count Adults : 0.2-2.0 % Infants : 2.0-6.0 % Absolute Eosinophil count 40-440/cu.mm Differential Leukocyte count Neutrophils                 : 40-75 %  ( mean  :  57 % ) Band forms       : 2-6 % ( mean  :  3 % ) Segmented        : 50-70 % ( mean  :  54 % ) Eosinophils                  : 1-4 % ( mean : 2 % ) Basophils                     : 0-1 % Lymphocytes             : 20-45 % (mean :  Read More

ICT

Estimation of Bilirubin – Jaundice : Significance, Production, Transportation, Metabolism & Laboratory Analysis

Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system; the end -products of heme catabolism are bilepigments. After breakdown of haemoglobin, the globin chains are separted,  they are hydrolysed and the amino acid are channelled into the body amino acid pool. The iron liberated from heme is re-utilised. The Fe++ liberated is oxidised Fe++ and taken up by transferrin. The porphyrin ring is broken down in reticuloendothelial cells of liver, spleen and bone marrow to bile pigments; linear tetrapyrrole is biliverdin which is green in colour which is further reduced to bilirubin, a red-yellow pigment, by an NADPH dependent biliverdin reductase. About 6 gm of Hb is broken down per day and a total of 300 mg of bilirubin is formed every day from which about 250 mg of bilirubin is formed and 50 mg of bilirubin is formed from myoglobin and other heme containing proteins. About Read More

ICT

Triglycerides (TG) – Significance, Characteristics, Function & Laboratory Analysis

            Triglycerides (TG) or Triacyl glycerols are true natural fats, esters of trihydric alcohol, glycerol and fatty acids, that belong to the organic group of compounds called lipids. Most animal and vegetable fats are triglycerides. After hydrolysis they yield glycerol and fatty acids and the triglyceride assay is based on the quentitative analysis of glycerol forms  of the tiglyceride. The triacylglycerols are the storage form of lipids in the adipose tissue. when stored as trihydric alcohol, water molecules are repelled and space requirement is minimal. Excess fat in the body leads to obesity. Triglycerides combine with protein in your blood to form substances called high-density and low-density lipoproteins. The lipoproteins contain cholesterol, which is one of the fats in blood that is related to heart disease. As per international Union of Biochemistry the correct designations are monoacyl glycerol, diacyl glycerol and triacyl glycerol. But the old terminology of monoglyceride, diglyceride and Read More

ICT

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) : Significance, Mechanism, Influencing factors, Procedure

When anticoagulated blood is allowed to stand undisturbed condition for a period of time, the erythrocytes tends to sink to the bottom. Two layers are formed, the upper plasma layer and lower sedimented erythrocyte layer. The rate at which the red cells fall is knows as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). Mechanism of sedimentation of RBCs : The ESR is consist of mainly four phases. These are aggregation, rouleaux formation, sedimentation and packing. 1st 15 minutes : Phase of minimum fall :  The red cells suspended in a column of citrated blood undergo rouleaux formation in the plasma and become heavier. Sedimentation in this phase is very low. 2nd 15 minutes : Phase of moderate falling :  Fibrinogen and globulin in the plasma develop fine threads and build up a network. The rouleaux of the red cells get tapped in the mash of network and become heaviest. It starts to settle Read More