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Gout – Uric acid Analysis

Uric acid is a non-protein nitrogenous waste product of the body, derived from purines of the diet. Purines are the end products of nucleoprotein digestion ( high in red meat). The two purines found in RNA and DNA are adenine and guanine. The first step in the catabolism of purines is their hydrolytic deamination to form xanthine and hypoxanthine. These are then oxidized to uric acid. Uric acid is eliminated by the body through the kidney. Uric acid is filtered in the glomeruli and partially reabsorbed by the tubules and it is excreted in urine. In Kidney disorders, as with other non-protein nitrogen fractions of the plasma, uric acid builds up in the body.             Estimation of serum uric acid levels is helpful in the diagnosis of several pathologic conditions. An increase of serum uric acid is seen in case of Gout and increased metabolism of nucleoproteins of the body Read More

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Normal Value of Biochemical Parameters and Cancer Markers

Lipid Profile Test : Total Lipid : 400 – 1000 mg/dl Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Serum Phospholipids : Cardiac Profile Test : Cardiac Risk Evaluation Tests Serum Total Cholesterol : 150 – 239 mg/dl Serum Triglyceride : 40 – 140 mg/dl Serum HDL Cholesterol : Male : 30-60 mg/dl Female : 40-70 mg/dl Serum LDL Cholesterol : < 160 mg/dl Total Cholesterol / HDL ratio : Upto 5.0 Serum VLDL Cholesterol (TG/5) : < 35 mg/dl Cardiac Injury Panel Test Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)            : Male : < 170 U/L Female : <145 U/L CPK-MB : 0 – 24 U/L SGOT : Upto 40 IU/L Lactate Dehydrogenase Read More

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Normal Value of Hematological Parameters……

Hemoglobin Male                              :  13-18 gm/dl Female                               :  12-16.5 gm/dl Children (up to 1 year)   : 11-13 gm/dl Children (10-12 years)    : 11.5-14.5 gm/dl Infants (New born)         : 13.5-19.5 gm/dl Total RBC count Male      : 4.5-6.0 million/cu.mm Female  : 4.0-5.0 million/cu.mm Total WBC count Adults             : 4,000-11,000/cu.mm At birth           : 10,000-25,000/cu.mm 1 to 3 years      : 6,000-18,000/cu.mm 4 to 7 years      : 6,000-15,000/cu.mm 8 to 12 year     : 4,500-13,500/cu.mm Total platelet count 1.5-4.0 lakes/cu.mm Total Reticulocyte count Adults : 0.2-2.0 % Infants : 2.0-6.0 % Absolute Eosinophil count 40-440/cu.mm Differential Leukocyte count Neutrophils                 : 40-75 %  ( mean  :  57 % ) Band forms       : 2-6 % ( mean  :  3 % ) Segmented        : 50-70 % ( mean  :  54 % ) Eosinophils                  : 1-4 % ( mean : 2 % ) Basophils                     : 0-1 % Lymphocytes             : 20-45 % (mean :  Read More

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Estimation of Bilirubin – Jaundice : Significance, Production, Transportation, Metabolism & Laboratory Analysis

Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system; the end -products of heme catabolism are bilepigments. After breakdown of haemoglobin, the globin chains are separted,  they are hydrolysed and the amino acid are channelled into the body amino acid pool. The iron liberated from heme is re-utilised. The Fe++ liberated is oxidised Fe++ and taken up by transferrin. The porphyrin ring is broken down in reticuloendothelial cells of liver, spleen and bone marrow to bile pigments; linear tetrapyrrole is biliverdin which is green in colour which is further reduced to bilirubin, a red-yellow pigment, by an NADPH dependent biliverdin reductase. About 6 gm of Hb is broken down per day and a total of 300 mg of bilirubin is formed every day from which about 250 mg of bilirubin is formed and 50 mg of bilirubin is formed from myoglobin and other heme containing proteins. About Read More

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Triglycerides (TG) – Significance, Characteristics, Function & Laboratory Analysis

            Triglycerides (TG) or Triacyl glycerols are true natural fats, esters of trihydric alcohol, glycerol and fatty acids, that belong to the organic group of compounds called lipids. Most animal and vegetable fats are triglycerides. After hydrolysis they yield glycerol and fatty acids and the triglyceride assay is based on the quentitative analysis of glycerol forms  of the tiglyceride. The triacylglycerols are the storage form of lipids in the adipose tissue. when stored as trihydric alcohol, water molecules are repelled and space requirement is minimal. Excess fat in the body leads to obesity. Triglycerides combine with protein in your blood to form substances called high-density and low-density lipoproteins. The lipoproteins contain cholesterol, which is one of the fats in blood that is related to heart disease. As per international Union of Biochemistry the correct designations are monoacyl glycerol, diacyl glycerol and triacyl glycerol. But the old terminology of monoglyceride, diglyceride and Read More

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Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) : Significance, Mechanism, Influencing factors, Procedure

When anticoagulated blood is allowed to stand undisturbed condition for a period of time, the erythrocytes tends to sink to the bottom. Two layers are formed, the upper plasma layer and lower sedimented erythrocyte layer. The rate at which the red cells fall is knows as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). Mechanism of sedimentation of RBCs : The ESR is consist of mainly four phases. These are aggregation, rouleaux formation, sedimentation and packing. 1st 15 minutes : Phase of minimum fall :  The red cells suspended in a column of citrated blood undergo rouleaux formation in the plasma and become heavier. Sedimentation in this phase is very low. 2nd 15 minutes : Phase of moderate falling :  Fibrinogen and globulin in the plasma develop fine threads and build up a network. The rouleaux of the red cells get tapped in the mash of network and become heaviest. It starts to settle Read More

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Hemoglobin Estimation : Significance, Reference Range, Procedure…..

Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein present inside the erythrocytes. Hemoglobin consist of  a prosthetic group named heam, which is  combined with protein called globin (Hemoglobin =  Heam + Globin). Other heam containing proteins in the body are Myoglobin, Cytochrome-C etc. Heam carries oxygen (O2) from the lungs to the tissue cells and carbon dioxide (CO2), the gaseous waste product from the cells to the lungs. After the normal life span of RBC (over 120 days), the red cells are destroyed by the reticuloendothelial cells (specially in the spleen) and the components of the hemoglobin undergo metabolic degeneration. Several methods are available for the estimation of hemoglobin in the blood. These are: Acid heamatin method (Sahli’s method) Cyanmethemoglobin method. Alkaliheamatin method. Haldane’s Carboxyhemoglobin method. Oxyhemoglobin method. Former two methods are commonly used for determination of hemoglobin concentration. Clinical Significance : A decreased in hemoglobin concentration below normal range in an indication Read More

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Anticoagulants : Composition, Action, Merits & Demerits…..

Anticoagulants are the chemicals which prevent clotting of blood when mixed with blood in proper proportion. Action of Anticoagulants : Some anticoagulants prevent clotting of blood by precipitating ionic calcium (Ca++) in the plasma. Heparin act as an anti-thrombin to prevent the transformation of prothrombin to thrombin and thus prevent the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen. Anticoagulants used in Laboratory and in Blood Bank  : Following anticoagulants are uses in the laboratory for examination of blood.: Sodium Fluoride Heparin Ethyl Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) Potassium ammonium oxalate (Double Oxalate) Sodium Citrate etc. Following anticoagulants are uses in the Blood Bank for preservation of blood components; these are generally not used in the haematological investigations. Acid Citrate Dextrose (ACD) Citrate Phosphate Dextrose (CPD) Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (CPDA) RBC suspension in saline, adenine, glucose and manitol mixture. etc. Merits & Demerits of Anticoagulants Sodium Fluoride : Composition : Di-sodium or Read More

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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) : Significance, Function, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord with a density ranging from 1.003 to 1.008 which allows the brain to “float” in the fluid. It supplies nutrients to the tissues of the Central nervous system and helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. Compared to plasma, CSF has a lower concentration of glucose, protein, and potassium while having a higher concentration of chloride. The volume of the CSF in adults is 100–150 ml. The volume is less in children and varies according to the body length. About two-third part of CSF is secreted by the Choroid plexus of the four ventricle. The remaining part of CSF are secreted by the Ependymal surfaces of the ventricles and the Arachnoid mater. A small amount of CSF also comes from the blood flow in the brain. CSF is produce by an Read More

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Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) : Significance, Morphology, Reference Range, Interpretation & Procedure

The leukocytes are also called white blood corpuscles (WBC) and formally known as white cells of the blood but these are not white colour, these are colourless. The white blood cells are protect our body against any diseases by fighting with infections (bacterial, viral, protozoan, parasitic etc.), antigens and also against malignancy. These are two types; Granulocytes (Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophile) and Agranulocytes (Monocyte and Lymphocyte). After staining the blood film with Leishman stain, the blood smear examine in the microscope under oil immersion objective (100X). Under oil immersion objective the leukocytes are seen as follows: Morphology,  Function & Significance of Leukocytes  Differential Leukocyte Count is useful to identify changes in the distribution of white blood cells which may be related to specific type of disorders. It also gives idea regarding the severity of the disease and the degree of response of the body. Neutrophil Neutrophils are round shape, 10 – 15µ Read More