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Diabetes mellitus : Sign & Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Complication, Treatment, Control & Prevention

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic syndrome characterized as Polyuria, Polydipsia & polyphagia caused by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Deficiency of insulin affects the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat, and can cause a significant disturbance of water and electrolyte homeostasis. Glucose is vital to human health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It’s also human brain’s main source of fuel. If the person have diabetes mellitus, no matter what type, it means person have too much glucose in the blood circulation, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes mellitus includes Type-I diabetes mellitus and Type-II diabetes mellitus. Potentially reversible diabetes mellitus include prediabetes ; when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes; and gestational diabetes, which Read More

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Human Blood Group System

The basis of human blood group system is the antigenic character of the Red cells. Red blood cell of the human being contains lipoprotein or glycoprotein on their surface which constitute the blood group antigens. About 300 blood group system so far discovered and some of the more common are____ Natural           : ABO (A, B) MNS (M, N, S,s) P (P­1, P, PK,P) Lewis (Lea, Leb) Luthern (Lua, Lub) Ii (I, i) etc. Immune          : Rhesus (C, c, D, d, E,e) Kidd (JKa, JKb) Duffy (Fya, Fyb) Kell (K, k, Kpa, kpb, Jsa, Jsb) etc. Of these only two blood group system ; ‘ABO’ and ‘Rhesus’ are of major clinical importance and constitute major antigens. Which causes serious complication in blood transfusion, hence they may be tested whenever blood is administrated. The other blood group systems are of less importance because the red cell antigens are weak and naturally occurring Read More

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Synovial Fluid Collection & Analysis : Significance, Collection, Patient preparation, Complication & Laboratory analysis

Synovial fluid is the dialysate of plasma with addition of macromolecules; derived from synovium and cartilage. Synovial fluid is found around the joints such as knee, ankle, hip, elbow, wrist and shoulder. The chemical composition of synovial fluid resembles with that of other body fluids such as serous fluids and spinal fluid. In addition, it contains a mucopolysaccharide, hyluronic acid (derived from B cells of synovial membrane), which acts as a binding and protective agent for the connective tissues and also maintaining the high viscosity of the synovial fluid. The laboratory examination of this fluid helps to assist in the diagnosis of joint arthritis, gout or infection of the joint (septic arthritis). The synovial fluid cytology is particularly useful noninvasive means of investigating the causes of mono-arthropathies and do distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory joints diseases. The synovial fluid is obtained by aspiration of a joint. About 1 ml is Read More

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Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) : Significance, Indication & Contraindication, Patient preparation, Determination & Interpretation

Glucose Tolerance means ability of the body to utilize glucose in the blood circulation. This is a well standardized test and is highly useful for the diagnosis of Type-II Diabetes Mellitus in doubtful cases. This test is also called Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) as glucose is given orally. Alternatively, the test can also be done by injecting 25 gm of glucose intravenously and is then called Intravenous Glucose Tolerance test (IGTT). Indication of GTT Patient with symptoms suggest of diabetes mellitus but fasting glucose level is inconclusive. During pregnancy excessive weight gaining in noticed with the past history of big baby above 4.0 Kg or the past history of miscarriage. To rule-out benign renal glycosuria. Contra-indication of GTT It should not be done in a person with confirmed Diabetes mellitus patients that is Fasting blood glucose level more than 126 – 140 mg/dl and Postprandial glucose level more than Read More

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Blood Specimen Collection : Processing, Importance, Procedure…..

Blood for diagnostic investigations can be collected either from the peripheral vein or from the capillaries. Venous blood is preferred for haematology, biochemistry, serology & immunology investigations but capillary blood can be nearly as accurate if a free flow of blood is obtained and there is no dilution error due to tissue fluids. Site Selection Blood is usually collected from veins, capillaries and arteries. Venous blood is collected from anticubital vein most commonly. Blood is also collected from the vein of arms, dorsum of hands. Long cephalic vein is also used where non-availability of the former veins. Infant’s femoral vein is used for collection of blood. In newborn children umbilical vein and scalp vein are commonly used for puncture. For collection of capillary blood, the site is selected usually the finger-tips or ear-lobe in adult and the great toe or heel in infants. Techniques uses for Collection of blood Mainly Read More

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) : Sign & Symptoms, Transmission, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic viral infection, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). By damaging our immune system, HIV interferes with our body’s ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global pandemic. As of 2014, approximately 37 million people have HIV worldwide with the number of new infections that year being about 2 million. This is down from 3.1 million new infections in 2001. Of these 37 million more than half are women and 2.6 million are less than 15 years old.  It resulted in about 1.2 million deaths in 2014, down from a peak of 2.2 million in 2005. HIV is a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STD). It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens our immune Read More

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Hepatitis B : Sign & Symptoms, Transmission, Risk factors, Diagnosis, Complication, Treatment and Prevention

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis of liver (permanent scarring of the liver). Most people infected with hepatitis B as adults recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic hepatitis B infection. A vaccine can prevent hepatitis B infection but there’s no cure if you have it. If you’re infected, taking certain precautions can help prevent spreading HBV to others. In 2016, the World Health Assembly passed the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis, which included specific targets for eliminating Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus by 2030. Therefore, to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence, prophylaxis, diagnosed Read More